[tz] confirmation of historical DST changes in Ukraine

David Cochrane davidc at astrosoftware.com
Wed Mar 26 14:07:12 UTC 2014

Sorry, I did not post this to the correct thread. My apologies.

David Cochrane

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "David Cochrane" <davidc at astrosoftware.com>
To: <tz at iana.org>
Sent: Wednesday, March 26, 2014 8:35 AM
Subject: confirmation of historical DST changes in Ukraine

> Gary How wrote:
>> The question for tz
>> database is whether the switch to Urumqi Time in Xinjiang is on 1975 
>> (when
>> it was first announced) or 1986 (when it was more commonly implemented).
> Just a confirmation that Urumqi time was implemented in Urumqi on 1 Feb
> 1986:
> http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
> I did not subscribe or log in to the site but from the part of the article
> on this page, it suggests that the article will confirm the Feb 1, 1986 
> date
> for the date when people began observing Urumqi time (even if a regulation
> had already been passed in 1975).
> I am fairly new to this group. I also have some confirmation of the DST 
> changes in the Ukraine from newspaper articles in Russian that confirm 
> that the laws passed were put into practice. I can send these as well if 
> this is useful information. I can also gradually submit other historical 
> research information for countries that I have which I believe is not in 
> the TZ database files.
> David Cochrane
> ----- Original Message ----- 
> From: "Gary How" <hytar at outlook.com>
> To: <tz at iana.org>
> Sent: Monday, March 24, 2014 8:26 AM
> Subject: Re: [tz] China time zones 1949 - 1980: appeal to speakers
> ofMandarin
>> Alois Treindl <alois <at> astro.ch> writes:
>>> This seems to be a relevant source:
>>> Guo, Qingsheng (2003) "Beijing Time at the Beginning of PRC", China
>>> Historical Materials of Science and Technology 24(1)
>> Hi Alois and Paul, I purchased the journal article (finally after days of
>> figuring out which service allows payment from outside China). From the
>> points Alois raised in his recent email, I try to clarify by using that
>> article, quoting/paraphrasing its English translation.
>>> Various sources claim that this unified country-wide timezone was
>>> already introduced in 1949 or early 1950
>> This particular source says the first meeting of the Chinese People's
>> Political Consultative Conference passed the resolution of "making 
>> Beiping
>> the capital, changing Beiping to Beijing." That was 27 September 1949. On
>> the same day, Beiping Xinhua Radio was renamed with Beijing at the
>> beginning. The next day, that station started using Beijing in its
>> timekeeping call. The earliest written instance of "Beijing Time" found 
>> by
>> the author was on 7 October 1949, through a newspaper posting from Xi'an
>> People's Radio. That said, the author inferred that Beijing Time was
>> established on 27 September 1949.
>>> It seems to me that the only source claiming the continuation of 5 time
>>> zones for China is the International Atlas by Shanks and Pottenger. The
>>> overall work of these authors is extremely valuable, but they do not
>>> give a source for their China information.
>>> Paul Eckert says in tz/asia file:
>>> # From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
>>> # There seems to be a good chance China switched to a single time zone
>>> in 1949
>>> # rather than in 1980 as Shanks & Pottenger have it, but we don't have a
>>> # reliable documentary source saying so yet, so for now we still go with
>>> # Shanks & Pottenger.
>> For time zones in the rest of China after that, Qing-sheng Guo has 
>> another
>> journal article in 2001 that discussed these in detail, entitled "A Study 
>> on
>> the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China," from China
>> Historical Materials of Science and Technology 22(3).
>> Earlier I mentioned Xi'an radio station referencing Beijing Time. Another
>> written source for this was from the Xi'an People's Government dated 2
>> November 1949, announcing to stop using Longshu Time (aka Kansu-Szechuan
>> Time, GMT+7) and change to Beijing Time from 3 November 1949 onwards.
>>> 10/16/2010  by Jonathan.Hassid <at> uts.edu.au who writes:
>>> "The government in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) announced the
>>> switch (from "Shulong" (Gansu/Sichuan) time) to Beijing time on 27 Dec.
>>> 1949.
>> As for Chengdu, the date 27 December 1949 is stated in the article as 
>> "being
>> liberated" during the Communist Revolution. The switch to Beijing Time 
>> "was
>> announced ten days or so after that." The author referenced a notice from
>> the Chengdu Garrison Command dated 6 January 1950, to request citizens to
>> adjust their watches through daily sirens at noon Beijing Time. For most
>> other parts of China, they "have used standard time of 120° longitude 
>> around
>> the year 1950 to 1953." He dubbed it the "chaotic period", since no
>> government agency announced and enforced this rule of time, instead the
>> cities synced to the unified time at their pace.
>> In the 2003 article, Guo obtained two independent sources that verified 
>> the
>> Beijing Time of 1949 was using apparent/true solar time (GMT+7:56) and 
>> not
>> mean solar time (7:46) or standard time of 120° longitude (8:00). 
>> However,
>> he had doubts about that, since he thought apparent solar time is a step
>> back to time measurements in the early 20th century, and standard time
>> signals can be obtained easily from overseas stations at the time. The 
>> 1954
>> Chinese Astronomical Almanac mentioned that "except Xinjiang and Tibet, 
>> the
>> whole country uses standard time of 120° longitude." He has yet to find 
>> out
>> exactly when did Beijing Time switch back to GMT+8 between 1949 and 1954 
>> in
>> the article. I will try to look for later articles that reference this 
>> work.
>> For Tibet, the standard time of 90° longitude was used prior to March 
>> 1959,
>> also known as Lhasa Time. After the Tibetan Uprising that month and the
>> Panchen Lama took over, the author surmised that the transition from 
>> Lhasa
>> Time to Beijing Time happened at the second half of 1959. He tried to 
>> look
>> for "first-hand accounts" on this, but found none so far. On the other 
>> hand,
>> Guo said time zone changes for Xinjiang is relatively well documented.
>> The Revolutionary Committee of Xinjiang and Xinjiang military notified on 
>> 9
>> June 1969, that starting from 1 July 1969, Beijing Time would be put into
>> effect for the entire Xinjiang province. On 7 April 1975, the same 
>> committee
>> put out a notice to be enforced on 1 May, that except military, 
>> rail-road,
>> civil aviation, postal and telecommunication services, the schedules for
>> government, factories, mines, businesses and schools would use Urumqi 
>> Time.
>> Due to poor implementation of this notice, they again informed on 10 June
>> 1977 that "schedules for work, meeting etc. should only use Urumqi Time 
>> for
>> the whole province."
>> In the end, the Xinjiang People's Government decided that starting 1
>> February 1986, the entire province would use Urumqi Time. Whenever 
>> Beijing
>> Time is used, they should be stated explicitly. According to Guo, this
>> particular rule is more effectively put into practice. The question for 
>> tz
>> database is whether the switch to Urumqi Time in Xinjiang is on 1975 
>> (when
>> it was first announced) or 1986 (when it was more commonly implemented).
>> To conclude, all of China currently is in the UTC+8:00 time zone except 
>> for
>> Xinjiang province, according to the articles. The central Chinese 
>> government
>> still did not made a law to enforce the unified time zone, although it 
>> was
>> widely accepted that China has one official time zone. Whether or not the
>> locals all around China follow that standard time, we do not know for 
>> sure.
>> The 2001 article by Guo also has details about Chinese time zones from 
>> the
>> 1900s to 1949. We can start a new thread on this if necessary.
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