[tz] Some time zone history (4)
legco at outlook.com
Wed Mar 3 16:22:48 UTC 2021
Before 14 February 1918, Julian calendar was used in Russia. Therefore for the 1917 transitions in tz, 1 July should be 14 July and 28 December should be 10 January 1918.
Decrees for the 1917 forward transition:
In 1920, there were four transitions, the dates were the same as 1921.
The 1922 transition in Moscow seems to be wrong. Instead, there should be a transition in 1924.
You may also refer to a section on the Russian Wikipedia.
Standard time of GMT+2:30 was adopted on 1913-10-01, then GMT+3 at midnight of 1925-05-16, GMT+2:45 on 1937-01-01 and GMT+3 on 1942-08-01.
Popular Astronomy: A Review of Astronomy and Allied Sciences, Volume 22, p 328
General Notice No. 335 of 1925, 1905-05-13, Tanganyika Gazette, Vol. VI No.20, 1925-05-15, p 175
Interpretation (Standard Time) Order in Council, 1929 (Government Notice No. 11), 1929-01-21, Supplement to the Tanganyika Territory Gazette, Vol. X, No.5, 1929-01-25, p 9
Interpretation (Standard Time) Order, 1936 (Government Notice No. 159), 1936-10-13, Ibid., Vol. XVII, No. 56, 1936-11-06, p 270
Interpretation (Standard Time) Order, 1942 (Government Notice No. 259), 1942-07-15, Ibid., Vol. XXIII, No. 36, 1942-07-24,p 296
At some point after 1905-11-08, Uganda time was 30 minutes behind Mombasa Mean Time. At some point before 1908-04-25, GMT+2:30 was adopted as the standard time. In 1937 and 1942, new standard times in Uganda were adopted simultaneously in Kenya and Tanganyika.
Notice. Uganda Official Time., 1905-11-08, The Official Gazette of the East Africa and Uganda Protectorates, 1905-12-01, p 392
"Local Time.", East African Standard, Mombasa Times and Uganda Argus, 1907-11-23, p 16
"Standard Time.",Ibid., 1908-04-25, p 17
General Notice No. 601 of 1936, 1936-11-03, Official Gazette of the Uganda Protectorate, Vol. XXIX, No.25, 1936-11-16, p 385
General Notice No. 213 of 1942, 1942-07-11, The Uganda Gazette, Vol. XXXV, No. 14, 1942-07-15, p 102
Standard time of GMT+2 was adopted in 1899-08-01. Before that, GMT+2:30 was used in Salisbury.
The Bulawayo Chronicle, 1899-07-08, p 5
Government Notice No. 160 of 1899, 1899-07-20, The British South Africa Company Government Gazette, 1899-07-21, p 199
For the fallback transition in 1980, it could be either at 24:00 or 24:00s.
sources with 24:00s:
Maariv, 1980-09-09, p 1
Davar, 1980-09-10, p 2 and 10
The Jerusalem Post, 1980-09-10, p 18
source with 24:00:
Maariv, 1980-09-10, p 12
sources with "midnight":
Al-Ittihad, 1980-09-12, p 8
The Jerusalem Post, 1980-09-10, p 1 and 1980-09-14, p 1
For the fallback transition in 1984, it should be at 24:00.
Maariv, 1984-08-24, p 1
Al-Ittihad, 1984-08-26, p 2
The Jerusalem Post, 1984-08-21, p 4 and 1984-08-24, p 1
The Jerusalem Post images:
Before independence, DST was observed in 1940-1945 and 1948
List of Summer Time Orders:
An article on the government website said that DST in Cyprus was first implemented in 1976.
List of decrees for DST since 1976:
Apparently, no decree was issued for DST in 1975 and 1977-1979.
For other years, the rules in tz mostly match with the degrees, except:
1. spring forward transitions in 1994-1997 were at 00:01 instead of 00:00.
2. fallback transitions in 1996 and 1997 were at 24:00 of the last Saturday of October (or 00:00 of the last Sunday of October) instead of September.
3. EU rules were first used for the spring forward transition in 1998 instead of September 1998.
The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia has similar DST rules as Cyprus.
List of Summer Time Orders of the Sovereign Base Areas:
(EU rules have been adopted since 1998)
These orders were not publicly listed, some were searchable by search engine, the others were found by brute-force. Apparently, no order was issued for DST before 1976 and 1977-1979.
These orders mostly correspond to the decrees of Cyprus, except the transition times were in GMT, which was not stated in the decrees of Cyprus prior to 1998. Also, spring forward transition in 1994 was 00:00 (GMT) instead of 00:01.
Standard time of GMT+8 was adopted by the French concession at noon on 1903-01-01, before that GMT+8:05:56.7 (Shanghai mean time) was used.
"A New Time for the New Year", The North China Herald and Supreme Court & Counsular Gazette, 1902-12-31, p 1383
The Straits Times, 1903-01-09, p 5
Newspaper sources for DST observed in 1919 and 1940-1949:
(These are taken from "全国报刊索引" https://www.cnbksy.com/ and "中國近代報刊" https://www.dhcdb.com.tw/SP/)
The China Press
1919-04-13, p 26
1919-09-28, p 1
1940-05-31, p 1
1941-03-15, p 10
1941-11-02, p 2
1946-05-15, p 5
1946-10-01, p 2
1947-04-15, p 1
1947-09-21, p 5
1948-04-30, p 9
1948-09-30, p 1
1949-05-01, p 5
The North-China Daily News
1940-10-13, p 6
1949-06-01, p 1
The Shanghai Sunday Times
1942-02-01, p 4
The Shanghai Times
1942-10-23, p 5
Shun Pao (申報)
1945-08-28, p 2
The spring forward transitions in 1941 and 1942 should be at 24:00, the fallback transition in 1945 should be at 00:00.
Actually these can also be deduced from Li Yu's article:
footnote 29: 《沪市继续推行日光节约运动，自本月十五日午夜实行》，《申报》1941年3月12日，第7版。
footnote 34: 《日光节约时间昨夜开始》，《申报》1942年2月1日， 第3版。
the sentence before footnote 37:"...宣布本年9月1日零时起结束'日光节约时间'"
The communist city government ended DST at 00:00 on 1949-06-01.
The rules for Shanghai and Taipei in 1946-1949 are the same. Maybe they can be merged.
Malaysia and Singapore
Some of the sources mentioned in Aslaksen's webpage about Singapore time:
Government Notification No. 1000, 1900-09-06, Straits Settlements Government Gazette, 1900-09-07, p 1933
Government Notification No. 201, 1904-02-22, Ibid., 1904-02-26, p 300
Daylight Saving Ordinance, 1932 (No. 21 of 1932), Ibid., 1932-12-23, p 2623
Government Notification No. 2367, 1933-12-04, Ibid., 1933-12-15, p 2706
Government Notification No. 2371, 1934-10-08, Ibid., 1934-10-19, p 2954
Daylight Saving (Amendment) Ordinance, 1935 (No. 5 of 1935), Ibid., 1935-03-08, p 488
Daylight Saving Ordinance (Chapter 170), The laws of the Straits Settlements Edition of 1936, Vol VI, p 694
Daylight Saving (Amendment) Ordinance, 1941 (No. 33 of 1941), Supplement to the laws of the Straits Settlements, 1942, Vol I, p 223
Daylight Saving Ordinance (Chapter 266), The laws of the Colony of Singapore Edition of 1955, Vol VII, p 319
Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance (Chapter 2), Ibid., Vol I, pp 17-38
Singapore Standard Time Notification (G.N. No. S 392/1981)
Malaysian Standard Time Act 1981 (Act 261)
"Malaya Finished With 'Tokyo Time'", The Straits Times, 1945-09-07, p 1
Statute Law Revision Bill (Bill No. 36/1970)
With regard to Aslaksen and tz, the 1935 Ordinance, which made the Daylight Saving Ordinance permanent, was commenced on 1935-03-08. During WWII, Kuala Lumpur was occupied by Japanese a month earlier than Singapore. Kuching was also occupied earlier in December 1941. Therefore it is unlikely that they switched to GMT+9 on the same day. The Daylight Saving Ordinance was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1970 (No. 48 of 1970). The 1981/1982 transition took place at 16:00 GMT on 1981-12-31. (This was actually mentioned by Mok Ly Yng but the entry has remained uncorrected since 2003.)
Some of the sources for Sarawak:
Order No. VIII, 1926, 1926-02-11
The Sarawak Government Gazette, 1926-02-16, Vol.19 No.433, p 54
Notification No. 429, 1930-06-30
Ibid., 1930-07-01, Vol.23 No. 552, p 248
Notification No. 436, 1931-06-24
Ibid., 1931-07-01, Vol.24 No. 579 p.193
Notification No. 798, 1931-12-03
Ibid., 1932-01-02, Vol.24 No. 591, p 356
Notification No. 1274, 1940-09-06
Ibid., 1940-09-16, Vol.33 No.38, p 701
Defence (Standard Time (revocation)) Regulations, 1946
Ibid., Vol. 1 No.4, 1946-08-16, p 48
Standard Time Ordinance, 1946 (No. 2 of 1946)
Ibid., Vol. 1 No.20, 1946-12-16, p 232
Standard Time Regulations, 1950
Colony of Sarawak Supplement to the Government Gazette, Sup. No. 6, 1950-04-17, p 50
Standard Time (Amendment) Ordinance, 1950 (No. 2 of 1950)
Ibid., Sup. No. 12, 1950-05-30, p 91
"Sarawak Standard Time", The Sarawak Gazette, 1926-03-01, p 55
"Mainly About Nothing", Ibid., 1929-12-02, p 213
"Time in Sarawak", Ibid, 1932-10-01, p 168
"Sarawak Chronology", Ibid, 1961-07-31, p 131
"Summer Time in Sarawak" ,The Straits Times, 1932-09-29, p 19
The Sarawak Government Gazette, 1929
The Sarawak Government Gazette, 1941
Standard time of GMT+7:30 was adopted in Sarawak on 1926-03-01. DST was officially observed in 1930-1939, GMT+7:50 was used from September to December. The 1933 transition in tz should be an error.
According to some sources, DST was also observed in 1929, but the details are unclear. It was not mentioned in the Government Gazette issues published in 1929.
According to the Defence (Standard Time (revocation)) Regulations, 1946, the Defence (Standard Time) Regulations, 1941 suspended the 1926 Order. But the text of the 1941 Regulations is unknown. The 1941 issues of Government Gazette on Google Books are only up to 1941-12-09. Therefore it is likely that those regulations were publish after that day. The 1946 Regulations reinstated the 1926 Order but did not affect the clock. The time zone being used during 1945-1946 is unclear. Standard time of GMT+8 has been adopted since 1950-05-01.
"NBorneo" do not seem to be an appropriate name for the rules for Sarawak (Asia/Kuching). Since "North Borneo" usually refers to the territory which is now Sabah.
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